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There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the Clinical website.Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process.Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer.When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment.Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.
Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials.
Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, nivolumab, avelumab, and durvalumab are types of PD-1 inhibitors. Checkpoint proteins, such as PD-L1 on tumor cells and PD-1 on T cells, help keep immune responses in check.
The binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 keeps T cells from killing tumor cells in the body (left panel).
The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.